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  Semen Analysis
Authors: Alex J. Rai, PhD, Lori J. Sokoll, PhD Last modified: November 29, 2001
  • Semen should be analyzed within 1 hour of collection.
  • Results should be interpreted with caution, as they are indirect measures of sperm function and don't correlate directly with fertilizing ability.
  • Individual variability may be high and require several samples for reasonable assessment of semen characteristics.
  • Controversy exists over what is a "normal" semen profile.
  • Several factors can contribute to male infertility, including endocrine disorders, anatomic abnormalities, abnormal spermatogenesis or motility, and psychosocial causes.
  1. Tu Lin and Richard V. Clark ;  Disorders of Male Reproductive Function ;  Diagnostic Endocrinology, Second Ed. Edited by W. Tabb Moore and Richard C. Eastman. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri. (1996)

  2. Doris J. Baker, PhD ;  Performing a Quality Semen Analysis in the Clinical Laboratory ;  Medical Laboratory Observer 32 (12) 20-29 (Dec. 2000)

  3. Ann M. Gronowski, PhD and Mary Landau-Levine, MD ;  Reproductive Endocrine Function ;  Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Third Edition. W.B. Saunders Company (1999).

  4. Kruger, T. et al. ;  New Method of Evaluating Sperm Morphology with Predictive Value for Human In Vitro Fertilization. ;  Urology 30:3, 1987

  5. Kruger, T. et al. ;  Predictive Value of Abnormal Sperm Morphology in In Vitro Fertilization. ;  Fertil Steril 49:1, 1988.

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